Effects of the single-ion anisotropy on magnetic and thermodynamic properties of a ferrimagnetic mixed-spin (1, 3/2) cylindrical Ising nanowire
Keywords:Magnetic nanowire;Anisotropy;Phase diagram;Magnetization;Hysteresis loops;Monte Carlo simulation;
Abstracts:Monte Carlo simulation has been performed in detail to study magnetic and thermodynamic properties of a ferrimagnetic mixed-spin (1, 3/2) cylindrical Ising nanowire with core-shell structure. The ground phase diagrams are obtained for different single-ion anisotropies. The system can display rich phase transitions such as the second- and first-order phase transitions, the tricritical points and the compensation points. Especially, emphasis has been given to the effects of the single-ion anisotropy and the temperate on the magnetization, the internal energy, the specific heat, the compensation points and hysteresis loops of the system as well as two sublattices. A number of characteristic phenomena such as such as various types of magnetization curves and triple, duadruple as well as quintuple hysteresis loops behaviors have been observed for certain physical parameters, originating from the competitions among the anisotropies, temperature and the longitudinal magnetic field. It is found that the single-ion anisotropy and the temperature strongly affect the coercivity and the remanence of the system. A satisfactory agreement can be achieved from comparisons between our results and previous theoretical and experimental works.
Effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency based nonlinear frequency conversion in quantum ring
Keywords:Quantum ring;Electromagnetically induced transparency;Nonlinear frequency conversion;
Abstracts:We study the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum ring. The high flexibility in size and shape of ring makes it possible to fabricate a nearly perfect two-dimensional quantum structure. We also explore the dependence of frequency conversion, measured in terms of third order nonlinear susceptibility , on coupling field, hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field. Although, a dip in is observed with the introduction of strong coupling field, it renders the ring structure transparent to generated wave thus effectively enhancing the output of nonlinear frequency conversion process. At a fixed coupling strength, the output can be further enhanced by increasing the magnetic field while it shows an inverse relationship with pressure. These parameters, being externally controlled, provide an easy handle to control the output of quantum ring which can be used as frequency converter in communication networks.
Nd-doped ZnO monolayer: High Curie temperature and large magnetic moment
Keywords:ZnO monolayer;Electronic structure;Magnetic property;First-principles calculation;
Abstracts:We performed first-principles calculations within density-functional theory to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Nd-doped ZnO monolayer. The calculated results reveal that Nd-doped ZnO monolayer exhibits stable room temperature ferromagnetism with a large saturation magnetic moment of 3.99 μ B per unit in ZnO monolayer. The magnetic property is contributed to the localized f sates of Nd atoms. When two Zn atoms are substituted by two Nd dopants, they tend to form ferromagnetic (FM) coupling and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than room temperature. More interesting, the impurity bands appear within the band gap of ZnO monolayer due to the introduction of Nd dopant. Our results may provide a reference for modifying the material property of ZnO monolayer and are promising as nanoscale building block in spintronic devices.
Modulating optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation of doped quantum dots: Interplay between hydrostatic pressure, temperature and noise
Keywords:Quantum dot;Impurity;Nonlinear optical properties;Hydrostatic pressure;Temperature;Gaussian white noise;
Abstracts:We examine the profiles of optical rectification (OR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of impurity doped QDs under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In order to study the above nonlinear optical (NLO) properties the doped dot has been subjected to a polarized monochromatic electromagnetic field. Effect of application of noise is nicely reflected through alteration of peak shift (blue/red) and variation of peak height (increase/decrease) of above NLO properties as temperature and pressure are varied. All such changes again sensitively depends on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The remarkable influence of interplay between noise strength and its mode of application on the said profiles has also been addressed. The findings illuminate fascinating role played by noise in tuning above NLO properties of doped QD system under the active presence of both hydrostatic pressure and temperature.
Electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of grass-like nanostructured α-Fe2O3 photoanodes for use in solar water oxidation
Keywords:α-Fe2O3;Electrochemical deposition;Photoelectrode;Water oxidation;Photocatalysis;
Abstracts:Grass-like nanostructured α-Fe2O3 photoelectrodes were prepared for the first time through a simple cathodic electrodeposition method from an oxygenated aqueous solution of Fe3+ at room temperature without using surfactant, capping agents or any other additives. The α-Fe2O3 electrodeposits were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis absorption and photoelectrochemical (PEC) techniques. The SEM and XRD results indicated that the as-deposited α-Fe2O3 are composed of single crystalline nanoleaves. The formation mechanisms of α-Fe2O3 have also been proposed based on a series of cyclic voltammetric and XPS studies. This new electrochemical method is expected to be a useful technique for the fabrication of single crystalline and photoactive α-Fe2O3 nanostructures directly onto the electrode surface, which is required in most applications, such as energy conversion and storage and sensors.
Investigation of veritcal graded channel doping in nanoscale fully-depleted SOI-MOSFET
Keywords:Fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI);Self-heating effect;Leakage current;Short channel effects;Hot-carrier degradation;Electron temperature;
Abstracts:For achieving reliable transistor, we investigate an amended channel doping (ACD) engineering which improves the electrical and thermal performances of fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET. We have called the proposed structure with the amended channel doping engineering as ACD-SOI structure and compared it with a conventional fully-depleted SOI MOSFET (C-SOI) with uniform doping distribution using 2-D ATLAS simulator. The amended channel doping is a vertical graded doping that is distributed from the surface of structure with high doping density to the bottom of channel, near the buried oxide, with low doping density. Short channel effects (SCEs) and leakage current suppress due to high barrier height near the source region and electric field modification in the ACD-SOI in comparison with the C-SOI structure. Furthermore, by lower electric field and electron temperature near the drain region that is the place of hot carrier generation, we except the improvement of reliability and gate induced drain lowering (GIDL) in the proposed structure. Undesirable Self heating effect (SHE) that become a critical challenge for SOI MOSFETs is alleviated in the ACD-SOI structure because of utilizing low doping density near the buried oxide. Thus, refer to accessible results, the ACD-SOI structure with graded distribution in vertical direction is a reliable device especially in low power and high temperature applications.
Structural and optical properties of copper-coated substrates for solar thermal absorbers
Keywords:Black chrome;Copper coating;Optical properties;Concentrating solar power;Linear parabolic collectors;Parabolic trough collectors;
Abstracts:Spectral selectivity, i.e. merging a high absorbance at sunlight wavelengths to a low emittance at the wavelengths of thermal spectrum, is a key characteristics for materials to be used for solar thermal receivers. It is known that spectrally selective absorbers can raise the receiver efficiency for all solar thermal technologies. Tubular sunlight receivers for parabolic trough collector (PTC) systems can be improved by the use of spectrally selective coatings. Their absorbance is increased by deposing black films, while the thermal emittance is minimized by the use of properly-prepared substrates. In this work we describe the intermediate step in the fabrication of black-chrome coated solar absorbers, namely the fabrication and characterization of copper coatings on previously nickel-plated stainless steel substrates. We investigate the copper surface features and optical properties, correlating them to the coating thickness and to the deposition process, in the perspective to assess optimal conditions for solar absorber applications.
Influence of solution viscosity on hydrothermally grown ZnO thin films for DSSC applications
Keywords:Nanowire arrays;Zinc oxide;Viscosity;Dye sensitized solar cells;Charge transfer recombination resistance;
Abstracts:Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays (NWAs) were grown onto zinc oxide-titanium dioxide (ZnO-TiO2) seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive substrate by hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depict that ZnO thin films are preferentially oriented along the (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Viscosity measurements reveal that viscosity of the solutions linearly increases as the concentrations of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) increase in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images show that the NWAs are vertically grown to seeded FTO substrate with hexagonal structure, and the growth of NWAs decreases as the concentration of the PVA increases. Stylus profilometer and atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies predict that the thickness and roughness of the films decrease with increasing the PVA concentrations. The NWAs prepared at 0.1% of PVA exhibits a lower transmittance and higher absorbance than that of the other films. The band gap of the optimized films prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA is found to be 3.270 and 3.268 eV, respectively. The photo to current conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on photoanodes prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA exhibits about 0.64 and 0.82%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that the DSSC based on photoanode prepared at 0.1% of PVA has the highest charge transfer recombination resistance.
The role of boron nitride nanotube as a new chemical sensor and potential reservoir for hydrogen halides environmental pollutants
Keywords:Chemical sensor;Boron nitride nanotube;Hydrogen halides;DFT;
Abstracts:Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the interaction of hydrogen halides (HX) environmental pollutants and the boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been reported. To exploit the possibility of BNNTs as gas sensors, the adsorption of hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen bromide (HBr) on the side wall of armchair (5,5) boron nitride nanotubes have been investigated. B3LYP/6-31G (d) level were used to analyze the structural and electronic properties of investigate sensor. The adsorption process were interpreted by highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), natural bond orbital (NBO) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis. Topological parameters of bond critical points have been used to calculate as measure of hydrogen bond (HB) strength. Stronger binding energy, larger charge transfer and charge density illustrate that HF gas possesses chemisorbed adsorption process. The obtained results also show the strongest HB in HF/BNNT complex. We expect that results could provide helpful information for the design of new BNNTs based sensing devices.
Large temperature-induced red shift of G-band of functionalized graphene nanosheets synthesized from humic acid
Keywords:Humic acid;Graphenol;Raman analysis;Temperature dependence;
Abstracts:For the first time, temperature dependence of the G-band frequency for the functionalized graphene nanosheets synthesized using humic acid as precursor has been investigated. The Raman measurements has been performed using the excitation wavelength 514.5 nm and in the temperature range 23–116 °C. The prepared samples showed a negative temperature coefficient as large as −0.087 ± 0.008 cm−1/°C. Relatively large red shift of the G-band has been observed as the substrate temperature increases which indicates the higher sensitivity of the G-band peak position when the temperature varies. Such behavior has been attributed to the large contribution of the thermal expansion due to the lower Young's modulus of the reduced humic acid. This finding is important and opens the door for new applications of reduced humic acid as low cost, environmentally friendly and scalable material.