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Advances in Water Resources

Advances in Water Resources

Archives Papers: 1,085
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How to chase a tracer – combining conventional salt tracer testing and direct push electrical conductivity profiling for enhanced aquifer characterization
Thomas Vienken; Emanuel Huber; Manuel Kreck; Peter Huggenberger; Peter Dietrich;
Keywords:Tracer test;Direct push;Subsurface characterization;Hydrogeology;
Abstracts:Tracer testing is a well-established technique in hydrogeological site characterization. However, certain a priori knowledge of the hydraulic regime is required beforehand to avoid test failure, e.g. miss of tracer. In this study, we propose a novel tracer test concept for the hydraulic characterization of shallow unconsolidated sedimentary deposits when only scarce a priori information on the hydraulic regime is available. Therefore, we combine conventional salt tracer testing with direct push vertical high resolution electrical conductivity logging. The proposed tracer test concept was successfully tested on coarse, braided river deposits of the Tagliamento River, Italy. With limited a priori information available two tracer tests were performed in three days to reliably determine ground water flow direction and velocity allowing on-site decision-making to adaptively install observation wells for reliable breakthrough curve measurements. Furthermore, direct push vertical electrical profiling provided essential information about the plume characteristics with outstanding measurement resolution and efficiency.
Water limits to closing yield gaps
Kyle Frankel Davis; Maria Cristina Rulli; Francesco Garrassino; Davide Chiarelli; Antonio Seveso; Paolo D'Odorico;
Keywords:Irrigation water;Yield gap;Freshwater resources;Food production;Water scarcity;
Abstracts:Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops – maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).
Confidence intervals for return levels for the peaks-over-threshold approach
Thomas Schendel; Rossukon Thongwichian;
Keywords:Flood frequency analysis;Confidence interval;Peaks-over-threshold;Test inversion bootstrap;Profile likelihood;
Abstracts:The peaks-over-threshold (POT) approach is an important alternative to the annual block maxima (ABM) method in flood frequency analysis. POT requires the mathematical description of both, the number of exceedances over the threshold as well as the values of those exceedances. Regardless the method, estimates of extreme flood events are typically associated with a large range of uncertainty, which is usually showcased by appropriate confidence intervals (CIs). However, existing methods to estimate CIs for return levels for the POT approach have mostly neglected its dual-domain character and focused on the distribution of the magnitudes only. We present here a customization of two methods, the Profile Likelihood (PL) and test inversion bootstrap (TIB), which account for the dual-domain structure of POT. Both, PL and TIB, are in the framework of ABM already successfully employed for estimating CIs of extreme flood events. A comparison of the performance of the estimated CIs (in terms of coverage error) of the PL, TIB, and percentile bootstrap is done. As result, it is seen that both the lower and upper boundary of the CIs are strongly underestimated for the percentile bootstrap approach. A similar effect (although in a much less pronounced way) can be observed for PL. The performance of the TIB is usually superior to the percentile bootstrap and PL and yielded reasonable estimates for the CIs for large return periods.
Gaussian process modelling for uncertainty quantification in convectively-enhanced dissolution processes in porous media
D. Crevillén-García; R.D. Wilkinson; A.A. Shah; H. Power;
Keywords:Convectively-enhanced dissolution;Partial differential equations with random inputs;Multiple solutions and bifurcation;Gaussian process emulation and classification;Uncertainty quantification;
Abstracts:Numerical groundwater flow and dissolution models of physico-chemical processes in deep aquifers are usually subject to uncertainty in one or more of the model input parameters. This uncertainty is propagated through the equations and needs to be quantified and characterised in order to rely on the model outputs. In this paper we present a Gaussian process emulation method as a tool for performing uncertainty quantification in mathematical models for convection and dissolution processes in porous media. One of the advantages of this method is its ability to significantly reduce the computational cost of an uncertainty analysis, while yielding accurate results, compared to classical Monte Carlo methods. We apply the methodology to a model of convectively-enhanced dissolution processes occurring during carbon capture and storage. In this model, the Gaussian process methodology fails due to the presence of multiple branches of solutions emanating from a bifurcation point, i.e., two equilibrium states exist rather than one. To overcome this issue we use a classifier as a precursor to the Gaussian process emulation, after which we are able to successfully perform a full uncertainty analysis in the vicinity of the bifurcation point.
A comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian transport and non-linear reaction algorithms
David A. Benson; Tomás Aquino; Diogo Bolster; Nicholas Engdahl; Christopher V. Henri; Daniel Fernàndez-Garcia;
Keywords:Particle tracking;Chemical reaction;Numerical dispersion;Nonlinear amplification;
Abstracts:When laboratory-measured chemical reaction rates are used in simulations at the field-scale, the models typically overpredict the apparent reaction rates. The discrepancy is primarily due to poorer mixing of chemically distinct waters at the larger scale. As a result, realistic field-scale predictions require accurate simulation of the degree of mixing between fluids. The Lagrangian particle-tracking (PT) method is a now-standard way to simulate the transport of conservative or sorbing solutes. The method’s main advantage is the absence of numerical dispersion (and its artificial mixing) when simulating advection. New algorithms allow particles of different species to interact in nonlinear (e.g., bimolecular) reactions. Therefore, the PT methods hold a promise of more accurate field-scale simulation of reactive transport because they eliminate the masking effects of spurious mixing due to advection errors inherent in grid-based methods. A hypothetical field-scale reaction scenario is constructed and run in PT and Eulerian (finite-volume/finite-difference) simulators. Grid-based advection schemes considered here include 1st- to 3rd-order spatially accurate total-variation-diminishing flux-limiting schemes, both of which are widely used in current transport/reaction codes. A homogeneous velocity field in which the Courant number is everywhere unity, so that the chosen Eulerian methods incur no error when simulating advection, shows that both the Eulerian and PT methods can achieve convergence in the L 1 (integrated concentration) norm, but neither shows stricter pointwise convergence. In this specific case with a constant dispersion coefficient and bimolecular reaction A + B P , the correct total amount of product is 0.221M A0, where M A0 is the original mass of reactant A. When the Courant number drops, the grid-based simulations can show remarkable errors due to spurious over- and under-mixing. In a heterogeneous velocity field (keeping the same constant and isotropic dispersion), the PT simulations show an increased reaction total from 0.221M A0 to 0.372M A0 due to fluid deformation, while the 1st-order Eulerian simulations using ≈ 106 cells (with a classical grid Peclet number Δx/αL of 10) have total product of 0.53M A0, or approximately twice as much additional reaction due to advection error. The 3rd-order TVD algorithm fares better, with total product of 0.394M A0, or about 1.14 times the increased reaction total. A very strict requirement on grid Peclet numbers for Eulerian simulations will be required for realistic reactions because of their nonlinear nature. We analytically estimate the magnitude of the effect for the end-member cases of very fast and very slow reactions and show that in either case, the mass produced is proportional to 1 / P e , where Pe is the Peclet number. Therefore, extra mass is produced according to D , where the dispersion includes any numerical dispersion error. We test two PT methods, one that kills particles upon reaction and another that decrements a particle’s mass. For the bimolecular reaction studied here, the computational demands of the particle-killing methods are much smaller than, and the particle-number-preserving algorithm are on par with, the fastest Eulerian methods.
Identifying the influential aquifer heterogeneity factor on nitrate reduction processes by numerical simulation
E. Jang; W. He; H. Savoy; P. Dietrich; O. Kolditz; Y. Rubin; C. Schüth; T. Kalbacher;
Abstracts:Nitrate reduction reactions in groundwater systems are strongly influenced by various aquifer heterogeneity factors that affect the transport of chemical species, spatial distribution of redox reactive substances and, as a result, the overall nitrate reduction efficiency. In this study, we investigated the influence of physical and chemical aquifer heterogeneity, with a focus on nitrate transport and redox transformation processes. A numerical modeling study for simulating coupled hydrological-geochemical aquifer heterogeneity was conducted in order to improve our understanding of the influence of the aquifer heterogeneity on the nitrate reduction reactions and to identify the most influential aquifer heterogeneity factors throughout the simulation. Results show that the most influential aquifer heterogeneity factors could change over time. With abundant presence of electron donors in the high permeable zones (initial stage), physical aquifer heterogeneity significantly influences the nitrate reduction since it enables the preferential transport of nitrate to these zones and enhances mixing of reactive partners. Chemical aquifer heterogeneity plays a comparatively minor role. Increasing the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity also increases the nitrate removal efficiency of the system. However, ignoring chemical aquifer heterogeneity can lead to an underestimation of nitrate removals in long-term behavior. With the increase of the spatial variability of the electron donor, i.e. chemical heterogeneity, the number of the “hot spots” i.e. zones with comparably higher reactivity, should also increase. Hence, nitrate removal efficiencies will also be spatially variable but overall removal efficiency will be sustained if longer time scales are considered and nitrate fronts reach these high reactivity zones.
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