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Optics and Lasers in Engineering

Optics and Lasers in Engineering

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Planar ultra thin glass seals with optical fiber interface for monitoring tamper attacks on security eminent components
M. Thiel; G. Flachenecker; W. Schade; C. Gorecki; A. Thoma; R. Rathje;
Abstracts:Optical seals consisting of waveguide Bragg grating sensor structures in ultra thin glass transparencies have been developed to cover security relevant objects for detection of unauthorized access. For generation of optical signature in the seals, femtosecond laser pulses were used. The optical seals were connected with an optical fiber to enable external read out of the seal. Different attack scenarios for getting undetected access to the object, covered by the seal, were proven and evaluated. The results presented here, verify a very high level of security. An unauthorized detaching and subsequent replacement by original or copy of the seals for tampering would be accompanied with a very high technological effort, posing a substantial barrier towards an attacker. Additionally, environmental influences like temperature effects have a strong but reproducible influence on signature, which in context of a temperature reference database increases the level of security significantly.
Image hiding scheme based on time-averaged elliptic oscillations
Loreta Saunoriene; Sandra Aleksiene; Rimas Maskeliunas; Minvydas Ragulskis;
Abstracts:Image hiding technique based on time-averaged elliptic oscillations is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a single cover image representing a cross-moiré grating. The secret image is embedded into the background moiré grating by using a specially developed random scrambling algorithm. The secret is leaked in a form of a pattern of time-averaged moiré fringes when the cover image is elliptically oscillated. Also, the secret is leaked only if the parameters of elliptic oscillations are set to predefined values. Computational experiments are used to validate the proposed technique and to demonstrate the efficiency of its implementation.
Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces
Huiying Tang; Huimin Dong; Zhanwei Liu;
Abstracts:Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.
Multi-camera digital image correlation method with distributed fields of view
Krzysztof Malowany; Marcin Malesa; Tomasz Kowaluk; Malgorzata Kujawinska;
Abstracts:A multi-camera digital image correlation (DIC) method and system for measurements of large engineering objects with distributed, non-overlapping areas of interest are described. The data obtained with individual 3D DIC systems are stitched by an algorithm which utilizes the positions of fiducial markers determined simultaneously by Stereo-DIC units and laser tracker. The proposed calibration method enables reliable determination of transformations between local (3D DIC) and global coordinate systems. The applicability of the method was proven during in-situ measurements of a hall made of arch-shaped (18 m span) self-supporting metal-plates. The proposed method is highly recommended for 3D measurements of shape and displacements of large and complex engineering objects made from multiple directions and it provides the suitable accuracy of data for further advanced structural integrity analysis of such objects.
A novel 3D deformation measurement method under optical microscope for micro-scale bulge-test
Dan Wu; Huimin Xie;
Abstracts:A micro-scale 3D deformation measurement method combined with optical microscope is proposed in this paper. The method is based on gratings and phase shifting algorithm. By recording the grating images before and after deformation from two symmetrical angles and calculating the phases of the grating patterns, the 3D deformation field of the specimen can be extracted from the phases of the grating patterns. The proposed method was applied to the micro-scale bulge test. A micro-scale thermal/mechanical coupling bulge-test apparatus matched with the super-depth microscope was exploited. With the gratings fabricated onto the film, the deformed morphology of the bulged film was measured reliably. The experimental results show that the proposed method and the exploited bulge-test apparatus can be used to characterize the thermal/mechanical properties of the films at micro-scale successfully.
Response of a PCF-based modal interferometer to lateral stress: Resonant behavior and performance as sensor
Á. Sanz-Felipe; J.C. Martín;
Abstracts:The performance of a fiber-based modal interferometer as lateral stress sensor has been analyzed, both for static and periodic forces applied on it. The central fiber of the interferometer is a photonic crystal fiber. Forces are applied on it perpendicular to its axis, so that they squeeze it. In static situations, changes in the transmission spectrum of the interferometer are studied as a function of the charges applied. Measurements with several interferometers have been carried out in order to analyze the influence of its length and of its splices’ transmission on the device operation, looking for optimization of its linearity and sensibility. The effect of periodic charges, as an emulation of vibrations, has also been studied. The analysis is centered on the frequency dependence of the response. In linear regime (small enough periodic charges), the results obtained are satisfactorily explained by treating the central fiber of the interferometer as a mechanical resonator whose vibration modes coincide with the ones of a cylinder with clamped ends. In nonlinear regime, period doubling and other anharmonic behaviors have been observed.
Effect of linear polarizers on highly focused spirally polarized fields
Rosario Martínez-Herrero; David Maluenda; Ignasi Juvells; Artur Carnicer;
Abstracts:Linear polarizers are commonly used for projecting the direction of the electric field of a transverse paraxial beam on the direction of the polarizer axis. However, the use of these devices with highly convergent field poses a practical problem because the non transversal character of electric field. In this article, we discuss the behavior of highly focused beams with spiral polarization when they pass through a polarizer. Interestingly, beams with azimuthal polarization display a non negligible irradiance in the direction of propagation after passing through a polarizer. On top of that, we found that the irradiance of a highly focused radially polarized beam after a polarizer is notably different from the projection of the field on the direction of the polarizer axis.
Hyperspectral imaging of polymer banknotes for building and analysis of spectral library
Hoong-Ta Lim; Vadakke Matham Murukeshan;
Abstracts:The use of counterfeit banknotes increases crime rates and cripples the economy. New countermeasures are required to stop counterfeiters who use advancing technologies with criminal intent. Many countries started adopting polymer banknotes to replace paper notes, as polymer notes are more durable and have better quality. The research on authenticating such banknotes is of much interest to the forensic investigators. Hyperspectral imaging can be employed to build a spectral library of polymer notes, which can then be used for classification to authenticate these notes. This is however not widely reported and has become a research interest in forensic identification. This paper focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging on polymer notes to build spectral libraries, using a pushbroom hyperspectral imager which has been previously reported. As an initial study, a spectral library will be built from three arbitrarily chosen regions of interest of five circulated genuine polymer notes. Principal component analysis is used for dimension reduction and to convert the information in the spectral library to principal components. A 99% confidence ellipse is formed around the cluster of principal component scores of each class and then used as classification criteria. The potential of the adopted methodology is demonstrated by the classification of the imaged regions as training samples.
Frequency tripling of convergent beam employing crystals tiling in large-aperture high-energy laser facilities
Junhua Wang; Dazhen Li; Bo Wang; Jing Yang; Houwen Yang; Xiaoqian Wang; Wenyong Cheng;
Abstracts:In inertial confinement fusion, ultraviolet laser damage of the fused silica lens is an important limiting factor for load capability of the laser driver. To solve this problem, a new configuration of frequency tripling is proposed in this paper. The frequency tripling crystal is placed on downstream of the focusing lens, thus sum frequency generation of fundamental frequency light and doubling frequency light occurs in the beam convergence path. The focusing lens is only irradiated by fundamental light and doubling frequency lights. Thus, its damage threshold will increase. LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals are employed as frequency tripling crystals for its larger acceptance angle and higher damage threshold than KDP/DKDP crystals’. With the limitation of acceptance angle and crystal growth size are taken into account, the tiling scheme of LBO crystals is proposed and designed optimally to adopt to the total convergence angle of 36.0 mrad. Theoretical results indicate that 3 LBO crystals titling with different cutting angles in θ direction can meet the phase matching condition. Compared with frequency tripling of parallel beam using one LBO crystal, 83.8% (93.1% with 5 LBO crystals tiling) of the frequency tripling conversion efficiency can be obtained employing this new configuration. The results of a principle experiment also support this scheme. By employing this new design, not only the load capacity of a laser driver will be significantly improved, but also the fused silica lens can be changed to K9 glass lens which has the mature technology and low cost.
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